Climate Modification and Volcanoes

Climate modification is a multi-faceted and complex subject. In this article, we take a look at the relationship between climate modification and volcanoes.

Climate Modification and Volcanoes

The climate modification debate is a nasty one. Parties pick their positions, dig in and refuse to listen to the rants of the other side. Lost in the yelling is the simple fact that climate modification is a natural phenomenon to some extent. For proof, we need merely look at the materials kicked out by volcanoes.

It is an undeniable fact of the earth record that volcanoes have changed the climate during certain periods. Small explosions don’t have much impact, but large explosions send massive amounts of material and gases into the atmosphere. The gases include carbon dioxide, the ultimate bugaboo greenhouse gas. Beyond these gases, however, volcanoes can kick out so much debris and ash that the material in the atmosphere can actually block out the sun or reduce the warming effect.

Mount St. Helens is the most studied and well known recent eruption. Unless you have been meditating in a cave for the last 20 years, you know that the volcano exploded on May 18, 1980. The eruption was powerful enough to flatten everything for 17 miles, immediately turning 10 million trees into so much firewood. The huge volcanic ash cloud stretched halfway across the United States, but barely had an impact on global temperatures.

In contrast, the eruption of the El Chichon volcano in 1982 had a measurable climate impact. El Chichon is located in Mexico and was a much smaller eruption than Mount St. Helens. Still, the average temperature around the globe cooled by one degree. What scientist learned is the climate modification impact of volcanoes is highly dependent on the type of explosion.

Commercial Mortgage Modification

In todays crumbling, commercial real estate market, both borrowers and lenders find themselves in quite a precarious predicament. Borrowers struggle to make their commercial mortgage payments, while lenders are crippled by the increasing number of defaults on commercial property. Right now the best solution to this problem is commercial mortgage modification.

Commercial mortgage modification is the process of renegotiating the terms of a commercial loan. This is done typically by reducing the interest rate or monthly payment on the loan. Other benefits to the borrower may include an extension of the loan term, a forbearance or moratorium on payments, and of course an alternative to foreclosure.

A commercial mortgage modification is about risk to the lender. A lender will only consider a modification if a borrower is in default or at risk of defaulting. The most important thing the lender will look at in determining whether or not to modify a commercial note is cash flow. One very important calculation used in determining cash flow is called the DCR or Debt Coverage Ratio. This ratio is used by the underwriters to determine if a modification can be approved. If a property is breaking even, meaning the income generated is equal to the operating expenses, the DCR would be equal to 1. If commercial property has a positive cash flow, meaning the income the property generates is more than sufficient to cover the mortgage payment and all of the operating expenses, the DCR is greater than 1. If the property is losing money, the DCR would be less than 1. A lender will most likely not modify the commercial note, if the property already has a DCR greater than 1. Commercial lenders writing new commercial loans will most likely require a DCR of 1.25 or greater.

The most common

Stock Market And Investment Mantra

The term investment is no longer a complexity, especially related to stock market in India. Right from corporates, professionals, homemakers to students, the scope of investing has influenced all. It is no surprise if you find most of the people glued to the television or news portals to have a glimpse of the latest market news once the trading hours start. The stock prices in India get displayed in the news channels and portals facilitating investors to view the same. Buying and selling decisions depend on the market news as well as latest statistics of stock prices in India.

What do you expect from your investment or what are the objectives behind your investing in the Indian stock market? Obviously it is creation of wealth and optimizing it. Smart investment is all about buying stocks at the appropriate time and holding them until the right time approaches for selling. Not all stocks witness a rise in their value; your time and efforts on research, knowledge and staying updated with market news will help you choose stocks that would ensure maximum return on your investment.

One of the easiest tricks to experience a win-win situation in the Indian stock market is choosing stocks based on the performance of the company. So, you must be closely studying the rising and falling stock prices in India. How do you go forward with the choice factor? Consider the stock from the chart which you feel is consistent in its rising value. Find out the historical data and take into account the profit and turnover generated for a particular period of time, say five years at the minimum. If it is a renowned company, you will often come across its activities being published as part of market news. For long term investment in such

Make academic portfolio more valuable with finance degree online

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Tips On Writing Your Operations Manual Using The Franchise Operations Manual Template

Franchise Operations Manual Template is the blueprint of your business.

Franchise Operations Manual is one of the most important documents needed for each franchise business. It has a great difference from a successful and a profitable business to a misfortunate performing one. The operations manual serves as a guide when running a business and success of whatever business depends on it.

Writing the franchise operations manual can be a frustrating task but it is important that you have to work hard just to finish it. Rely on yourself; don’t rely on the writing ability of others because you are the person who is well-informed about your business. Tips are as follows to give you a guide throughout the writing process.

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